For the 2008 Medicare Physician Fee Schedule (MPFS), Medicare published rules with regard to the prohibition on marking up diagnostic testing which became effective January 1, 2008. On January 3, they were ‘suspended’ until the end of the year. With the 2009 MPFS, they were republished in final form offering two tests as to whether the prohibition is applicable: (1) whether the supervising or interpreting physician spends 75% of his time with the group; and if so, then there are no further restrictions to consider; if he does not then (2) whether the location where the service is provided is co-located with the office of the ordering physician, where that physician provides substantially the full range of his services on a regular basis. This is more restrictive than Stark; and it applies to all diagnostic testing, not just Stark DHS. Stark is about whether the service can be provided and be covered by Medicare. The anti-markup rules are about how much the billing entity can charge. The calculation of the ‘net charge’ when the prohibition does apply, if not obtained on a ‘per transaction’, ‘per click’ or ‘per study’ basis, is metaphysical at best. These rules relate to, although were not published with, the rules under Stark on “under arrangements” which also now extend far beyond the traditional hospital setting to all arrangements where a physician owned entity furnishes DHS to another entity which bills the DHS to Medicare --- most particularly, but not exclusively, hospitals.