Many non-lawyers confuse the effects of the Stark statute as distinct from the Anti-kickback Statute (AKS). Both can be the basis for false claims, but they aren’t even in the same Titles of the Social Security Act. Stark is a strict liability statute which means intent is irrelevant to its impact. Your motivations can be pure as the driven snow and you can still violate the law. To violate the AKS, however, the acts must be willful or with reckless disregard of the law. Stark is Medicare only, physician referrals only and about specific services only.  AKS is far broader, touching everyone on the food chain of federal health care program payments.  In her crisp video for Darshan Talks Unpacking the Hype Around Stark Law Issues for Pharma | Alice Gosfield - YouTube] Alice clarifies the distinctions and how to begin analyzing whether problems exist under either law, with, at the end, some specific observations about pharma and research effects. This is useful to anyone who has to deal with either of these critical statutes.