False claims liability has typically turned on financial behaviors -- upcoding, submitting claims pursuant to Stark or anti-kickback violations, and other financial arrangements, activities and transactions. Rarely considered are the increasingly new liabilities associated with what Alice calls “quality fraud.” These are improper clinical behaviors including wasteful services, medical errors, over-use, under-use, failed medical necessity and violation of basic requirements for payment that turn on clinical compliance.  In addition, with the advent of value-based purchasing and significantly more reporting about quality, inaccurate or false reporting can create exposure as well. In “Quality Fraud: Gathering The Threads” Alice elucidates the multiple bases for quality fraud, what such fraud looks like as action, penalties associated with misbehaviors, the guidance the government has offered on point, and suggestions for avoiding these risks. Most providers-- including hospitals and physicians -- will have to update their compliance programs to address effectively these augmented perils.